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Human Metapneumovirus in Adults
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, 3582 KE, The Netherlands
Department of Microbiology, Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, 3582 KE, The Netherlands
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, 3582 KE, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2012; in revised form: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 8 January 2013
Abstract: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.
Keywords: human metapneumovirus; HMPV; respiratory tract infection; adults; intensive care; diagnosis; treatment; vaccination
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MDPI and ACS Style
Haas, L.E.M.; Thijsen, S.F.T.; van Elden, L.; Heemstra, K.A. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults. Viruses 2013, 5, 87-110.
Haas LEM, Thijsen SFT, van Elden L, Heemstra KA. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults. Viruses. 2013; 5(1):87-110.
Haas, Lenneke E.M.; Thijsen, Steven F.T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A. 2013. "Human Metapneumovirus in Adults." Viruses 5, no. 1: 87-110.