Next Article in Journal
Bacteriophage 434 Hex Protein Prevents RecA-Mediated Repressor Autocleavage
Next Article in Special Issue
Breaking In: Human Metapneumovirus Fusion and Entry
Previous Article in Journal
Utility of the Bacteriophage RB69 Polymerase gp43 as a Surrogate Enzyme for Herpesvirus Orthologs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diversity in Glycosaminoglycan Binding Amongst hMPV G Protein Lineages
Viruses 2013, 5(1), 87-110; doi:10.3390/v5010087

Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 2
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 8 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [246 KB, uploaded 8 January 2013]
Abstract: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.
Keywords: human metapneumovirus; HMPV; respiratory tract infection; adults; intensive care; diagnosis; treatment; vaccination human metapneumovirus; HMPV; respiratory tract infection; adults; intensive care; diagnosis; treatment; vaccination
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Haas, L.E.M.; Thijsen, S.F.T.; van Elden, L.; Heemstra, K.A. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults. Viruses 2013, 5, 87-110.

AMA Style

Haas LEM, Thijsen SFT, van Elden L, Heemstra KA. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults. Viruses. 2013; 5(1):87-110.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haas, Lenneke E.M.; Thijsen, Steven F.T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A. 2013. "Human Metapneumovirus in Adults." Viruses 5, no. 1: 87-110.

Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert