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Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2012; in revised form: 15 January 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
Abstract: Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages) during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.
Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus; cell death; host defense; acute lung injury
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MDPI and ACS Style
van den Berg, E.; van Woensel, J.B.; Bem, R.A. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection. Viruses 2013, 5, 406-422.
van den Berg E, van Woensel JB, Bem RA. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection. Viruses. 2013; 5(1):406-422.
van den Berg, Elske; van Woensel, Job B.; Bem, Reinout A. 2013. "Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection." Viruses 5, no. 1: 406-422.