Viruses 2013, 5(1), 192-210; doi:10.3390/v5010192

Breaking In: Human Metapneumovirus Fusion and Entry

1email and 2,* email
Received: 14 December 2012; in revised form: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of respiratory infection that causes upper airway and severe lower respiratory tract infections. HMPV infection is initiated by viral surface glycoproteins that attach to cellular receptors and mediate virus membrane fusion with cellular membranes. Most paramyxoviruses use two viral glycoproteins to facilitate virus entry—an attachment protein and a fusion (F) protein. However, membrane fusion for the human paramyxoviruses in the Pneumovirus subfamily, HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), is unique in that the F protein drives fusion in the absence of a separate viral attachment protein. Thus, pneumovirus F proteins can perform the necessary functions for virus entry, i.e., attachment and fusion. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of how HMPV F mediates both attachment and fusion. We review the requirements for HMPV viral surface glycoproteins during entry and infection, and review the identification of cellular receptors for HMPV F. We also review our current understanding of how HMPV F mediates fusion, concentrating on structural regions of the protein that appear to be critical for membrane fusion activity. Finally, we illuminate key unanswered questions and suggest how further studies can elucidate how this clinically important paramyxovirus fusion protein may have evolved to initiate infection by a unique mechanism.
Keywords: metapneumovirus; fusion protein; paramyxovirus; integrin
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [465 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 24 January 2013 09:38 CET]
The original version is still available [466 KB, uploaded 16 January 2013 09:48 CET]

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Cox, R.G.; Williams, J.V. Breaking In: Human Metapneumovirus Fusion and Entry. Viruses 2013, 5, 192-210.

AMA Style

Cox RG, Williams JV. Breaking In: Human Metapneumovirus Fusion and Entry. Viruses. 2013; 5(1):192-210.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cox, Reagan G.; Williams, John V. 2013. "Breaking In: Human Metapneumovirus Fusion and Entry." Viruses 5, no. 1: 192-210.

Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert