Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1830-1843; doi:10.3390/v4091830
Article

Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa

1,†email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 2email, 1email, 2email, 1email and 1,* email
Received: 26 July 2012; in revised form: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Dynamics and Evolution)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is currently the predominant subtype worldwide. Cell culture studies of Sub-Saharan African subtype C proviral plasmids are hampered by the low replication capacity of the resulting viruses, although viral loads in subtype C infected patients are as high as those from patients with subtype B. Here, we describe the sequencing and construction of a new HIV-1 subtype C proviral clone (pZAC), replicating more than one order of magnitude better than the previous subtype C plasmids. We identify the env-region for being the determinant for the higher viral titers and the pZAC Env to be M-tropic. This higher replication capacity does not lead to a higher cytotoxicity compared to previously described subtype C viruses. In addition, the pZAC Vpu is also shown to be able to down-regulate CD4, but fails to fully counteract CD317.
Keywords: HIV-1; subtype C; proviral plasmid; viral replication; resistance assays; Vpu; CD317; CD4
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jacobs, G.B.; Bock, S.; Schuch, A.; Moschall, R.; Schrom, E.-M.; Zahn, J.; Reuter, C.; Preiser, W.; Rethwilm, A.; Engelbrecht, S.; Kerkau, T.; Bodem, J. Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa. Viruses 2012, 4, 1830-1843.

AMA Style

Jacobs GB, Bock S, Schuch A, Moschall R, Schrom E-M, Zahn J, Reuter C, Preiser W, Rethwilm A, Engelbrecht S, Kerkau T, Bodem J. Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa. Viruses. 2012; 4(9):1830-1843.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jacobs, Graeme B.; Bock, Stefanie; Schuch, Anita; Moschall, Rebecca; Schrom, Eva-Maria; Zahn, Juliane; Reuter, Christian; Preiser, Wolfgang; Rethwilm, Axel; Engelbrecht, Susan; Kerkau, Thomas; Bodem, Jochen. 2012. "Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa." Viruses 4, no. 9: 1830-1843.


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