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Herpesvirus Exploitation of Host Immune Inhibitory Pathways
Viruses 2012, 4(8), 1335-1353; doi:10.3390/v4081335
Review

Herpesviruses Placating the Unwilling Host: Manipulation of the MHC Class II Antigen Presentation Pathway

*  and
Cancer Research UK Birmingham Cancer Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
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Abstract

Lifelong persistent infection by herpesviruses depends on the balance between host immune responses and viral immune evasion. CD4 T cells responding to antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are known to play an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections. Here we review, with emphasis on human herpesvirus infections, the strategies evolved to evade CD4 T cell immunity. These viruses target multiple points on the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway. The mechanisms include: suppression of CIITA to inhibit the synthesis of MHC class II molecules, diversion or degradation of HLA-DR molecules during membrane transport, and direct targeting of the invariant chain chaperone of HLA-DR.
Keywords: herpes viruses; MHC class II; CD4 T cell; immune evasion herpes viruses; MHC class II; CD4 T cell; immune evasion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zuo, J.; Rowe, M. Herpesviruses Placating the Unwilling Host: Manipulation of the MHC Class II Antigen Presentation Pathway. Viruses 2012, 4, 1335-1353.

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