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Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking
Penn State College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Penn State College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2012; in revised form: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 June 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
Abstract: Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA), which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.
Keywords: RNA labeling; retrovirus; live-cell
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Bann, D.V.; Parent, L.J. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking. Viruses 2012, 4, 963-979.
Bann DV, Parent LJ. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking. Viruses. 2012; 4(6):963-979.
Bann, Darrin V.; Parent, Leslie J. 2012. "Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking." Viruses 4, no. 6: 963-979.