Next Article in Journal
Recent Progress in Studies of Arterivirus- and Coronavirus-Host Interactions
Previous Article in Journal
Administration of Fozivudine Tidoxil as a Single-Agent Therapeutic during Acute Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Does Not Alter Chronic Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantitative Live-Cell Imaging of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Assembly
Viruses 2012, 4(6), 963-979; doi:10.3390/v4060963

Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

1 Penn State College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033, USA 2 Penn State College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 June 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Imaging)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [488 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |   Browse Figure


Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA), which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.
Keywords: RNA labeling; retrovirus; live-cell RNA labeling; retrovirus; live-cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Bann, D.V.; Parent, L.J. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking. Viruses 2012, 4, 963-979.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert