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Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2012; in revised form: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 18 March 2012 / Published: 2 April 2012
Abstract: Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non‑structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein) have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-κB pathways. Nsp’s are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS.
Keywords: arterivirus; interferon; PRRS; PRRSV; RIG-I; MDA5; NF-κB; JAK-STAT; non-structural proteins; Nsp; nucleocapsid
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Sun, Y.; Han, M.; Kim, C.; Calvert, J.G.; Yoo, D. Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Viruses 2012, 4, 424-446.
Sun Y, Han M, Kim C, Calvert JG, Yoo D. Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Viruses. 2012; 4(4):424-446.
Sun, Yan; Han, Mingyuan; Kim, Chiyong; Calvert, Jay G.; Yoo, Dongwan. 2012. "Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus." Viruses 4, no. 4: 424-446.