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Viruses 2012, 4(10), 2162-2181; doi:10.3390/v4102162

Envelope Glycoprotein of Arenaviruses

Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 48, 1011, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 5 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 October 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arenaviruses)
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Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP). GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.
Keywords: Arenavirus; anti-viral; drug; GPC; SKI-1/S1P; PF-429242 Arenavirus; anti-viral; drug; GPC; SKI-1/S1P; PF-429242
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Burri, D.J.; Palma, J.R.D.; Kunz, S.; Pasquato, A. Envelope Glycoprotein of Arenaviruses. Viruses 2012, 4, 2162-2181.

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