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Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences
Viruses 2011, 3(6), 714-749; doi:10.3390/v3060714
Review

Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis

1,2,*  and 1,2,*
1 Cancer Institute, Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA 2 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 April 2011 / Revised: 13 May 2011 / Accepted: 1 June 2011 / Published: 10 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
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Abstract

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), whereas the highly related HTLV-2 is not associated with ATL or other cancers. In addition to ATL leukemogenesis, studies of the HTLV viruses also provide an exceptional model for understanding basic pathogenic mechanisms of virus-host interactions and human oncogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the viral regulatory protein Tax and host inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB are largely responsible for the different pathogenic potentials of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 oncogenic pathogenesis with a focus on the interplay between the Tax oncoprotein and NF-κB pro-oncogenic signaling. We also outline some of the most intriguing and outstanding questions in the fields of HTLV and NF-κB. Answers to those questions will greatly advance our understanding of ATL leukemogenesis and other NF-κB-associated tumorigenesis and will help us design personalized cancer therapies.
Keywords: ATL; IKK; HTLV; immune escape; NF-κB; PDLIM2; Tax; transformation; tumorigenesis; virus-host interaction; WWOX ATL; IKK; HTLV; immune escape; NF-κB; PDLIM2; Tax; transformation; tumorigenesis; virus-host interaction; WWOX
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Qu, Z.; Xiao, G. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis. Viruses 2011, 3, 714-749.

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