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Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis
Cancer Institute, Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 April 2011; in revised form: 13 May 2011 / Accepted: 1 June 2011 / Published: 10 June 2011
Abstract: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), whereas the highly related HTLV-2 is not associated with ATL or other cancers. In addition to ATL leukemogenesis, studies of the HTLV viruses also provide an exceptional model for understanding basic pathogenic mechanisms of virus-host interactions and human oncogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the viral regulatory protein Tax and host inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB are largely responsible for the different pathogenic potentials of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 oncogenic pathogenesis with a focus on the interplay between the Tax oncoprotein and NF-κB pro-oncogenic signaling. We also outline some of the most intriguing and outstanding questions in the fields of HTLV and NF-κB. Answers to those questions will greatly advance our understanding of ATL leukemogenesis and other NF-κB-associated tumorigenesis and will help us design personalized cancer therapies.
Keywords: ATL; IKK; HTLV; immune escape; NF-κB; PDLIM2; Tax; transformation; tumorigenesis; virus-host interaction; WWOX
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Qu, Z.; Xiao, G. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis. Viruses 2011, 3, 714-749.
Qu Z, Xiao G. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis. Viruses. 2011; 3(6):714-749.
Qu, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Gutian. 2011. "Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis." Viruses 3, no. 6: 714-749.