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Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences
Viruses 2011, 3(6), 714-749; doi:10.3390/v3060714

Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis

1,2,*  and 1,2,*
1 Cancer Institute, Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA 2 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 April 2011 / Revised: 13 May 2011 / Accepted: 1 June 2011 / Published: 10 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
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Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), whereas the highly related HTLV-2 is not associated with ATL or other cancers. In addition to ATL leukemogenesis, studies of the HTLV viruses also provide an exceptional model for understanding basic pathogenic mechanisms of virus-host interactions and human oncogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the viral regulatory protein Tax and host inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB are largely responsible for the different pathogenic potentials of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 oncogenic pathogenesis with a focus on the interplay between the Tax oncoprotein and NF-κB pro-oncogenic signaling. We also outline some of the most intriguing and outstanding questions in the fields of HTLV and NF-κB. Answers to those questions will greatly advance our understanding of ATL leukemogenesis and other NF-κB-associated tumorigenesis and will help us design personalized cancer therapies.
Keywords: ATL; IKK; HTLV; immune escape; NF-κB; PDLIM2; Tax; transformation; tumorigenesis; virus-host interaction; WWOX ATL; IKK; HTLV; immune escape; NF-κB; PDLIM2; Tax; transformation; tumorigenesis; virus-host interaction; WWOX
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Qu, Z.; Xiao, G. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis. Viruses 2011, 3, 714-749.

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