Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
New Insights into HTLV-1 Particle Structure, Assembly, and Gag-Gag Interactions in Living Cells
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus: A Model of NF-κB-Associated Tumorigenesis
Viruses 2011, 3(6), 750-769; doi:10.3390/v3060750
Review

Controversies in Targeted Therapy of Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: ON Target or OFF Target Effects?

1,* , 2
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 2,*
Received: 8 April 2011; in revised form: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 May 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
Download PDF [195 KB, uploaded 14 June 2011]
Abstract: Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) represents an ideal model for targeted therapy because of intrinsic chemo-resistance of ATL cells and the presence of two well identified targets: the HTLV-I retrovirus and the viral oncoprotein Tax. The combination of zidovudine (AZT) and interferon-alpha (IFN) has a dramatic impact on survival of ATL patients. Although the mechanism of action remains unclear, arguments in favor or against a direct antiviral effect will be discussed. Yet, most patients relapse and alternative therapies are mandatory. IFN and arsenic trioxide induce Tax proteolysis, synergize to induce apoptosis in ATL cells and cure Tax-driven ATL in mice through specific targeting of leukemia initiating cell activity. These results provide a biological basis for the clinical success of arsenic/IFN/AZT therapy in ATL patients and suggest that both extinction of viral replication (AZT) and Tax degradation (arsenic/IFN) are needed to cure ATL.
Keywords: adult T cell leukemia; HTLV-I; Tax; AZT; arsenic trioxide; interferon adult T cell leukemia; HTLV-I; Tax; AZT; arsenic trioxide; interferon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Nasr, R.; Hajj, H.E.; Kfoury, Y.; Thé, H.; Hermine, O.; Bazarbachi, A. Controversies in Targeted Therapy of Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: ON Target or OFF Target Effects? Viruses 2011, 3, 750-769.

AMA Style

Nasr R, Hajj HE, Kfoury Y, Thé H, Hermine O, Bazarbachi A. Controversies in Targeted Therapy of Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: ON Target or OFF Target Effects? Viruses. 2011; 3(6):750-769.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nasr, Rihab; Hajj, Hiba El; Kfoury, Youmna; Thé, Hugues de; Hermine, Olivier; Bazarbachi, Ali. 2011. "Controversies in Targeted Therapy of Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma: ON Target or OFF Target Effects?" Viruses 3, no. 6: 750-769.


Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert