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Viruses 2011, 3(5), 541-560; doi:10.3390/v3050541
Review

Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

1,* , 1
,
1
,
1
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie 8, 37134, Verona, Italy 2 Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2011 / Accepted: 26 April 2011 / Published: 9 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
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Abstract

Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity.
Keywords: HTLV; Tax-1; Tax-2; signal transduction; cellular localization; post-translational modifications; NF-kB; PDZ binding motif HTLV; Tax-1; Tax-2; signal transduction; cellular localization; post-translational modifications; NF-kB; PDZ binding motif
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Bertazzoni, U.; Turci, M.; Avesani, F.; Di Gennaro, G.; Bidoia, C.; Romanelli, M.G. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences. Viruses 2011, 3, 541-560.

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