Viruses 2011, 3(11), 2351-2373; doi:10.3390/v3112351
Review

Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians

1,2,* email, 1email and 3email
Received: 16 September 2011; in revised form: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Infecting Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry) contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease) than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs.
Keywords: amphibian declines; anthropogenic stressors; emerging pathogen; histopathology; Iridoviridae; pathogen pollution; Ranavirus; subclinical infection; transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, D.; Gray, M.; Storfer, A. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians. Viruses 2011, 3, 2351-2373.

AMA Style

Miller D, Gray M, Storfer A. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians. Viruses. 2011; 3(11):2351-2373.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miller, Debra; Gray, Matthew; Storfer, Andrew. 2011. "Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians." Viruses 3, no. 11: 2351-2373.


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