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Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians
Center for Wildlife Health, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2011; in revised form: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Abstract: Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry) contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease) than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs.
Keywords: amphibian declines; anthropogenic stressors; emerging pathogen; histopathology; Iridoviridae; pathogen pollution; Ranavirus; subclinical infection; transmission
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Miller, D.; Gray, M.; Storfer, A. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians. Viruses 2011, 3, 2351-2373.
Miller D, Gray M, Storfer A. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians. Viruses. 2011; 3(11):2351-2373.
Miller, Debra; Gray, Matthew; Storfer, Andrew. 2011. "Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians." Viruses 3, no. 11: 2351-2373.