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Viruses of Fish: An Overview of Significant Pathogens
Australian Animal Health Laboratory, CSIRO Livestock Industries, Geelong Victoria 3220, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2011; in revised form: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Abstract: The growing global demand for seafood together with the limited capacity of the wild-capture sector to meet this demand has seen the aquaculture industry continue to grow around the world. A vast array of aquatic animal species is farmed in high density in freshwater, brackish and marine systems where they are exposed to new environments and potentially new diseases. On-farm stresses may compromise their ability to combat infection, and farming practices facilitate rapid transmission of disease. Viral pathogens, whether they have been established for decades or whether they are newly emerging as disease threats, are particularly challenging since there are few, if any, efficacious treatments, and the development of effective viral vaccines for delivery in aquatic systems remains elusive. Here, we review a few of the more significant viral pathogens of finfish, including aquabirnaviruses and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus which have been known since the first half of the 20th century, and more recent viral pathogens, for example betanodaviruses, that have emerged as aquaculture has undergone a dramatic expansion in the past few decades.
Keywords: aquabirnavirus; betanodavirus; infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus; salmonid alphavirus; epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus; infectious salmon anemia virus; viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Crane, M.; Hyatt, A. Viruses of Fish: An Overview of Significant Pathogens. Viruses 2011, 3, 2025-2046.
Crane M, Hyatt A. Viruses of Fish: An Overview of Significant Pathogens. Viruses. 2011; 3(11):2025-2046.
Crane, Mark; Hyatt, Alex. 2011. "Viruses of Fish: An Overview of Significant Pathogens." Viruses 3, no. 11: 2025-2046.