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Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany
Roche Glycart AG, Schlieren 8952, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2011; in revised form: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Abstract: Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.
Keywords: FIV; antiviral; restriction factor; APOBEC3; TRIM5; tetherin
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zielonka, J.; Münk, C. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. Viruses 2011, 3, 1986-2005.
Zielonka J, Münk C. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1986-2005.
Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten. 2011. "Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1986-2005.