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Prior Virus Exposure Alters the Long-Term Landscape of Viral Replication during Feline Lentiviral Infection
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, 1619 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2011; in revised form: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
Abstract: We developed a feline model of lentiviral cross-species transmission using a puma lentivirus (PLV or FIVPco) which infects domestic cats but does not cause disease. Infection with PLV protects cats from CD4+ T-cell decline caused by subsequent infection with virulent feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Previous studies implicate innate immune and/or cellular restriction mechanisms for FIV disease attenuation in PLV-infected cats. In this study, we evaluated viral infection and cytokine mRNA transcription in 12 different tissue reservoirs approximately five months post infection. We quantitated tissue proviral load, viral mRNA load and relative transcription of IL-10, IL-12p40 and IFNγ from tissues of cats exposed to FIV, PLV or both viruses and analyzed these parameters using a multivariate statistical approach. The distribution and intensity of FIV infection and IFNγ transcription differed between single and co-infected cats, characterized by higher FIV proviral loads and IFNγ expression in co-infected cat tissues. Variability in FIV mRNA load and IFNγ was significantly more constrained in co-infected versus singly infected cat tissues. Single-infected:co-infected ratios of FIV mRNA load compared to FIV proviral load indicated that active viral transcription was apparently inhibited during co-infection. These results indicate that previous PLV infection increases activation of tissue innate immunity and constrains the ability of FIV to productively infect tissue reservoirs of infection for months, independent of FIV proviral load, supporting a model in which innate immunity and/or modulation of target cell susceptibility play a key role in PLV-induced protection from FIV disease.
Keywords: FIV; HIV; co-infection; lentivirus; feline; tropism; reservoir; immunodeficiency; interferon-gamma; innate immunity
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Zheng, X.; Carver, S.; Troyer, R.M.; Terwee, J.A.; VandeWoude, S. Prior Virus Exposure Alters the Long-Term Landscape of Viral Replication during Feline Lentiviral Infection. Viruses 2011, 3, 1891-1908.
Zheng X, Carver S, Troyer RM, Terwee JA, VandeWoude S. Prior Virus Exposure Alters the Long-Term Landscape of Viral Replication during Feline Lentiviral Infection. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1891-1908.
Zheng, Xin; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M.; Terwee, Julie A.; VandeWoude, Sue. 2011. "Prior Virus Exposure Alters the Long-Term Landscape of Viral Replication during Feline Lentiviral Infection." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1891-1908.