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Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review
Medical Research Council, University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Henry Wellcome Building for Comparative Medical Sciences, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2011; in revised form: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 29 September 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
Abstract: One of the major obstacles that must be overcome in the design of effective lentiviral vaccines is the ability of lentiviruses to evolve in order to escape from neutralizing antibodies. The primary target for neutralizing antibodies is the highly variable viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), a glycoprotein that is essential for viral entry and comprises both variable and conserved regions. As a result of the complex trimeric nature of Env, there is steric hindrance of conserved epitopes required for receptor binding so that these are not accessible to antibodies. Instead, the humoral response is targeted towards decoy immunodominant epitopes on variable domains such as the third hypervariable loop (V3) of Env. For feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as the related human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), little is known about the factors that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. In cats infected with FIV and patients infected with HIV-1, only rarely are plasma samples found that contain antibodies capable of neutralizing isolates from other clades. In this review we examine the neutralizing response to FIV, comparing and contrasting with the response to HIV. We ask whether broadly neutralizing antibodies are induced by FIV infection and discuss the comparative value of studies of neutralizing antibodies in FIV infection for the development of more effective vaccine strategies against lentiviral infections in general, including HIV-1.
Keywords: FIV; neutralization; neutralizing antibody; feline immunodeficiency virus
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hosie, M.J.; Pajek, D.; Samman, A.; Willett, B.J. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review. Viruses 2011, 3, 1870-1890.
Hosie MJ, Pajek D, Samman A, Willett BJ. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1870-1890.
Hosie, Margaret J.; Pajek, Daniela; Samman, Ayman; Willett, Brian J. 2011. "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1870-1890.