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Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review
AbstractOne of the major obstacles that must be overcome in the design of effective lentiviral vaccines is the ability of lentiviruses to evolve in order to escape from neutralizing antibodies. The primary target for neutralizing antibodies is the highly variable viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), a glycoprotein that is essential for viral entry and comprises both variable and conserved regions. As a result of the complex trimeric nature of Env, there is steric hindrance of conserved epitopes required for receptor binding so that these are not accessible to antibodies. Instead, the humoral response is targeted towards decoy immunodominant epitopes on variable domains such as the third hypervariable loop (V3) of Env. For feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as the related human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), little is known about the factors that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. In cats infected with FIV and patients infected with HIV-1, only rarely are plasma samples found that contain antibodies capable of neutralizing isolates from other clades. In this review we examine the neutralizing response to FIV, comparing and contrasting with the response to HIV. We ask whether broadly neutralizing antibodies are induced by FIV infection and discuss the comparative value of studies of neutralizing antibodies in FIV infection for the development of more effective vaccine strategies against lentiviral infections in general, including HIV-1.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hosie, M.J.; Pajek, D.; Samman, A.; Willett, B.J. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review. Viruses 2011, 3, 1870-1890.View more citation formats
Hosie MJ, Pajek D, Samman A, Willett BJ. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review. Viruses. 2011; 3(10):1870-1890.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hosie, Margaret J.; Pajek, Daniela; Samman, Ayman; Willett, Brian J. 2011. "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Neutralization: A Review." Viruses 3, no. 10: 1870-1890.