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The HTLV-1 Virological Synapse
Department of Immunology, Wright-Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, St. Mary’s campus, Norfolk Place W2 1PG, London, UK
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2010; in revised form: 4 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
Abstract: Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) spreads efficiently between T-cells via a tight and highly organized cell-cell contact known as the virological synapse. It is now thought that many retroviruses and other viruses spread via a virological synapse, which may be defined as a virus-induced, specialized area of cell-to-cell contact that promotes the directed transmission of the virus between cells. We summarize here the mechanisms leading to the formation of the HTLV-1 virological synapse and the role played by HTLV-1 Tax protein. We propose a model of HTLV-1 transmission between T-cells based on the three-dimensional ultrastructure of the virological synapse. Finally, in the light of recent advances, we discuss the possible routes of HTLV-1 spread across the virological synapse.
Keywords: HTLV-1 virological synapse; viral proteins; cytoskeleton; polarization
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Nejmeddine, M.; Bangham, C.R. The HTLV-1 Virological Synapse. Viruses 2010, 2, 1427-1447.
Nejmeddine M, Bangham CR. The HTLV-1 Virological Synapse. Viruses. 2010; 2(7):1427-1447.
Nejmeddine, Mohamed; Bangham, Charles R.M. 2010. "The HTLV-1 Virological Synapse." Viruses 2, no. 7: 1427-1447.