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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070372

Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Tadpoles and Adult Frogs Differ in Their Use of Expanded Repertoires of Type I and Type III Interferon Cytokines

1
Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, 800 22nd St NW, Suite 6000, Washington, DC 20052, USA
2
School Without Walls High School, Washington, DC 20052, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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Abstract

While amphibians around the globe are facing catastrophic declines, in part because of infections with pathogens such as the Frog Virus 3 (FV3) ranavirus; the mechanisms governing amphibian susceptibility and resistance to such pathogens remain poorly understood. The type I and type III interferon (IFN) cytokines represent a cornerstone of vertebrate antiviral immunity, while our recent work indicates that tadpoles and adult frogs of the amphibian Xenopus laevis may differ in their IFN responses to FV3. In this respect, it is notable that anuran (frogs and toads) tadpoles are significantly more susceptible to FV3 than adult frogs, and thus, gaining greater insight into the differences in the tadpole and adult frog antiviral immunity would be invaluable. Accordingly, we examined the FV3-elicited expression of a panel of type I and type III IFN genes in the skin (site of FV3 infection) and kidney (principal FV3 target) tissues and isolated cells of X. laevis tadpoles and adult frogs. We also examined the consequence of tadpole and adult frog skin and kidney cell stimulation with hallmark pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the IFN responses of these cells. Together, our findings indicate that tadpoles and adult frogs mount drastically distinct IFN responses to FV3 as well as to viral and non-viral PAMPs, while these expression differences do not appear to be the result of a distinct pattern recognition receptor expression by tadpoles and adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphibian; interferon; IFN; FV3; antiviral amphibian; interferon; IFN; FV3; antiviral
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wendel, E.S.; Yaparla, A.; Melnyk, M.L.S.; Koubourli, D.V.; Grayfer, L. Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Tadpoles and Adult Frogs Differ in Their Use of Expanded Repertoires of Type I and Type III Interferon Cytokines. Viruses 2018, 10, 372.

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