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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050238

Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch)

1
Faculty of Crop Science, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University (SARNU), Km 9, Darya Road P.O. Box 578 Sari, Iran
2
Department of Plant Breeding, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CEBAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
3
Department of Plant Nutrition, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CEBAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Virus Interactions)
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Abstract

Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA3 and GA4; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA3 and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting “Garrigues” almond onto the PPV-inoculated “GF305” peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA3 and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prunus; virus resistance; PPV; sharka; phytohormones; breeding Prunus; virus resistance; PPV; sharka; phytohormones; breeding
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dehkordi, A.N.; Rubio, M.; Babaeian, N.; Albacete, A.; Martínez-Gómez, P. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch). Viruses 2018, 10, 238.

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