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Viruses 2018, 10(3), 101; doi:10.3390/v10030101

Modulating Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulators to Improve Immunological Memory

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smallpox and Emerging Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses: What Is Coming Next?)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [358 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]


The increasing frequency of monkeypox virus infections, new outbreaks of other zoonotic orthopoxviruses and concern about the re-emergence of smallpox have prompted research into developing antiviral drugs and better vaccines against these viruses. This article considers the genetic engineering of vaccinia virus (VACV) to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VACV strains engineered to lack specific immunomodulatory or host range proteins are described. The ultimate goal is to develop safer and more immunogenic VACV vaccines that induce long-lasting immunological memory. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccinia virus; vaccine; smallpox; immune evasion; genetic engineering; immunological memory; orthopoxviruses vaccinia virus; vaccine; smallpox; immune evasion; genetic engineering; immunological memory; orthopoxviruses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Albarnaz, J.D.; Torres, A.A.; Smith, G.L. Modulating Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulators to Improve Immunological Memory. Viruses 2018, 10, 101.

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