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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 75; doi:10.3390/v10020075

Mammarenaviral Infection Is Dependent on Directional Exposure to and Release from Polarized Intestinal Epithelia

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, 505 South Hancock Street Rm 622, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
2
Center for Predictive Medicine for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
3
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract

Mammarenavirusesare single-stranded RNA viruses with a bisegmented ambisense genome. Ingestion has been shown as a natural route of transmission for both Lassa virus (LASV) and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Due to the mechanism of transmission, epithelial tissues are among the first host cells to come in contact with the viruses, and as such they potentially play a role in spread of virus to naïve hosts. The role of the intestinal epithelia during arenavirus infection remains to be uncharacterized. We have utilized a well-established cell culture model, Caco-2, to investigate the role of intestinal epithelia during intragastric infection. We found that LCMV-Armstrong, LCMV-WE, and Mopeia (MOPV) release infectious progeny via similar patterns. However, the reassortant virus, ML-29, containing the L segment of MOPV and S segment of LASV, exhibits a unique pattern of viral release relative to LCMV and MOPV. Furthermore, we have determined attachment efficacy to Caco-2 cells is potentially responsible for observed replication kinetics of these viruses in a polarized Caco-2 cell model. Collectively, our data shows that viral dissemination and interaction with intestinal epithelia may be host, tissue, and viral specific. View Full-Text
Keywords: arenaviruses; mammarenaviruses; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV); Mopeia Virus (MOPV); ML-29; intestinal epithelia; polarization arenaviruses; mammarenaviruses; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV); Mopeia Virus (MOPV); ML-29; intestinal epithelia; polarization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Warner, N.L.; Jokinen, J.D.; Beier, J.I.; Sokoloski, K.J.; Lukashevich, I.S. Mammarenaviral Infection Is Dependent on Directional Exposure to and Release from Polarized Intestinal Epithelia. Viruses 2018, 10, 75.

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