Next Article in Journal
HCV Animal Models: A Journey of More than 30 Years
Next Article in Special Issue
Evolutionary Constraints to Viroid Evolution
Previous Article in Journal
HBV Life Cycle: Entry and Morphogenesis
Viruses 2009, 1(2), 210-221; doi:10.3390/v1020210

Viroid Intercellular Trafficking: RNA Motifs, Cellular Factors and Broad Impacts

Department of Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology and Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Ohio State University, 207 Rightmire Hall, 1060 Carmack Road, Columbus, 43210 USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2009 / Revised: 31 August 2009 / Accepted: 1 September 2009 / Published: 1 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subviral RNAs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [179 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |   Browse Figures


Viroids are noncoding RNAs that infect plants. In order to establish systemic infection, these RNAs must traffic from an initially infected host cell into neighboring cells and ultimately throughout a whole plant. Recent studies have identified structural motifs in a viroid that are required for trafficking, enabling further studies on the mechanisms of their function. Some cellular proteins interact with viroids in vivo and may play a role in viroid trafficking, which can now be directly tested by using a virus-induced gene silencing system that functions efficiently in plant species from which these factors were identified. This review discusses these recent advances, unanswered questions and the use of viroid infection as an highly productive model to elucidate mechanisms of RNA trafficking that is of broad biological significance.
Keywords: viroid; RNA motif; RNA trafficking; plasmodesmata; phloem viroid; RNA motif; RNA trafficking; plasmodesmata; phloem
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Takeda, R.; Ding, B. Viroid Intercellular Trafficking: RNA Motifs, Cellular Factors and Broad Impacts. Viruses 2009, 1, 210-221.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert