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The Complete Sequence of a Human Parainfluenzavirus 4 Genome
Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Ontario, Canada
Division of Microbiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Current address: Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (Microbiology), Alberta, and University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 April 2009; in revised form: 22 May 2009 / Accepted: 26 May 2009 / Published: 2 June 2009
Abstract: Although the human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV4) has been known for a long time, its genome, alone among the human paramyxoviruses, has not been completely sequenced to date. In this study we obtained the first complete genomic sequence of HPIV4 from a clinical isolate named SKPIV4 obtained at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (Ontario, Canada). The coding regions for the N, P/V, M, F and HN proteins show very high identities (95% to 97%) with previously available partial sequences for HPIV4B. The sequence for the L protein and the non-coding regions represent new information. A surprising feature of the genome is its length, more than 17 kb, making it the longest genome within the genus Rubulavirus, although the length is well within the known range of 15 kb to 19 kb for the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The availability of a complete genomic sequence will facilitate investigations on a respiratory virus that is still not completely characterized.
Keywords: human parainfluenza virus 4; complete genome sequence; L protein; long RT-PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yea, C.; Cheung, R.; Collins, C.; Adachi, D.; Nishikawa, J.; Tellier, R. The Complete Sequence of a Human Parainfluenzavirus 4 Genome. Viruses 2009, 1, 26-41.
Yea C, Cheung R, Collins C, Adachi D, Nishikawa J, Tellier R. The Complete Sequence of a Human Parainfluenzavirus 4 Genome. Viruses. 2009; 1(1):26-41.
Yea, Carmen; Cheung, Rose; Collins, Carol; Adachi, Dena; Nishikawa, John; Tellier, Raymond. 2009. "The Complete Sequence of a Human Parainfluenzavirus 4 Genome." Viruses 1, no. 1: 26-41.