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Viruses, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2009), Pages 1-83

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Welcome to Viruses: A New Open-Access, Multidisciplinary Forum for Virology
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/v1010001
Received: 26 March 2009 / Accepted: 30 March 2009 / Published: 1 April 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (19 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The field of virology has never been more exciting as a research area and more relevant to human health as it is in 2009. The AIDS pandemic, caused by the uncurtailed spread of HIV-1 in large parts of the world, continues to [...] Read more.
The field of virology has never been more exciting as a research area and more relevant to human health as it is in 2009. The AIDS pandemic, caused by the uncurtailed spread of HIV-1 in large parts of the world, continues to have an enormous impact on the human condition. The threat of a global outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza remains real, and memories of the devastation created by the SARS coronavirus are still fresh. While many of the world’s most lethal viruses (Ebola, Hendra, Rift Valley fever, etc.) are geographically contained, the possibility of deliberate transmission of such infectious agents as biological weapons is cause for concern. Increased understanding of all viruses, not only these “newsworthy” pathogens, is warranted as it is impossible to predict the origins of the next viral epidemic. Increased human movement, global climate change, and disruption of natural ecosystems all favor the transmission and spread of both established and emerging viruses. Agricultural interests world-wide continue to be significantly impacted by viral agents. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle The Complete Sequence of a Human Parainfluenzavirus 4 Genome
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 26-41; doi:10.3390/v1010026
Received: 6 April 2009 / Revised: 22 May 2009 / Accepted: 26 May 2009 / Published: 2 June 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although the human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV4) has been known for a long time, its genome, alone among the human paramyxoviruses, has not been completely sequenced to date. In this study we obtained the first complete genomic sequence of HPIV4 from a [...] Read more.
Although the human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV4) has been known for a long time, its genome, alone among the human paramyxoviruses, has not been completely sequenced to date. In this study we obtained the first complete genomic sequence of HPIV4 from a clinical isolate named SKPIV4 obtained at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (Ontario, Canada). The coding regions for the N, P/V, M, F and HN proteins show very high identities (95% to 97%) with previously available partial sequences for HPIV4B. The sequence for the L protein and the non-coding regions represent new information. A surprising feature of the genome is its length, more than 17 kb, making it the longest genome within the genus Rubulavirus, although the length is well within the known range of 15 kb to 19 kb for the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The availability of a complete genomic sequence will facilitate investigations on a respiratory virus that is still not completely characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newly Identified Respiratory Viruses)
Open AccessArticle An Economical Tandem Multiplex Real-Time PCR Technique for the Detection of a Comprehensive Range of Respiratory Pathogens
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 42-56; doi:10.3390/v1010042
Received: 5 May 2009 / Revised: 2 June 2009 / Accepted: 5 June 2009 / Published: 8 June 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study used real-time PCR assays to screen small sample volumes for a comprehensive range of 35 respiratory pathogens. Initial thermocycling was limited to 20 cycles to avoid competition for reagents, followed by a secondary real-time multiplex PCR. Supplementary semi-nested human metapneumovirus [...] Read more.
This study used real-time PCR assays to screen small sample volumes for a comprehensive range of 35 respiratory pathogens. Initial thermocycling was limited to 20 cycles to avoid competition for reagents, followed by a secondary real-time multiplex PCR. Supplementary semi-nested human metapneumovirus and picornavirus PCR assays were required to complete the acute respiratory pathogen profile. Potential pathogens were detected in 85 (70%) of pernasal aspirates collected from 121 children with acute respiratory symptoms. Multiple pathogens were detected in 29 (24%) of those samples. The tandem multiplex real-time PCR was an efficient method for the rapid detection of multiple pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newly Identified Respiratory Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 72-83; doi:10.3390/v1010072
Received: 4 June 2009 / Revised: 11 June 2009 / Accepted: 11 June 2009 / Published: 11 June 2009
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples [...] Read more.
On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW). The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2%) adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34%) tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested), with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for appropriate subtype driven anti-viral therapy and the potential shortage of such medications in a large epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newly Identified Respiratory Viruses)

Review

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Open AccessReview Human Bocavirus – Insights into a Newly Identified Respiratory Virus
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 3-12; doi:10.3390/v1010003
Received: 2 April 2009 / Revised: 16 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in 2005 using a molecular virus screening technique. It is often found in respiratory samples and is a likely cause for respiratory diseases in children. HBoV is distributed worldwide and has been found not only in respiratory [...] Read more.
Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in 2005 using a molecular virus screening technique. It is often found in respiratory samples and is a likely cause for respiratory diseases in children. HBoV is distributed worldwide and has been found not only in respiratory samples, but also in feces, urine and serum. HBoV infections are mostly found in young children and coinfections with other respiratory viruses are often found, exacerbating the efforts to link HBoV to specific symptoms. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent HBoV research, highlighting some recent findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newly Identified Respiratory Viruses)
Open AccessReview Alphaviruses in Gene Therapy
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 13-25; doi:10.3390/v1010013
Received: 2 April 2009 / Revised: 15 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alphaviruses are enveloped single stranded RNA viruses, which as gene therapy vectors provide high-level transient gene expression. Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SIN) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus have been engineered as efficient replication-deficient and -competent expression vectors. Alphavirus vectors [...] Read more.
Alphaviruses are enveloped single stranded RNA viruses, which as gene therapy vectors provide high-level transient gene expression. Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SIN) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus have been engineered as efficient replication-deficient and -competent expression vectors. Alphavirus vectors have frequently been used as vehicles for tumor vaccine generation. Moreover, SFV and SIN vectors have been applied for intratumoral injections in animals implanted with tumor xenografts. SIN vectors have demonstrated natural tumor targeting, which might permit systemic vector administration. Another approach for systemic delivery of SFV has been to encapsulate replication-deficient viral particles in liposomes, which can provide passive targeting to tumors and allow repeated administration without host immune responses. This approach has demonstrated safe delivery of encapsulated SFV particles to melanoma and kidney carcinoma patients in a phase I trial. Finally, the prominent neurotropism of alphaviruses make them attractive for the treatment of CNS-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Viral Vector Systems for Gene Therapy)
Open AccessReview More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1
Viruses 2009, 1(1), 57-71; doi:10.3390/v1010057
Received: 7 May 2009 / Revised: 6 June 2009 / Accepted: 11 June 2009 / Published: 11 June 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After human coronaviruses OC43, 229E and NL63, human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is the fourth human coronavirus discovered. HCoV-HKU1 is a group 2a coronavirus that is still not cultivable. The G + C contents of HCoV-HKU1 genomes are 32%, the lowest among all [...] Read more.
After human coronaviruses OC43, 229E and NL63, human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is the fourth human coronavirus discovered. HCoV-HKU1 is a group 2a coronavirus that is still not cultivable. The G + C contents of HCoV-HKU1 genomes are 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. Among all coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 shows the most extreme codon usage bias, attributed most importantly to severe cytosine deamination. All HCoV-HKU1 genomes contain unique tandem copies of a 30-base acidic tandem repeat of unknown function at the N-terminus of nsp3 inside the acidic domain upstream of papain-like protease 1. Three genotypes, A, B and C, of HCoV-HKU1 and homologous recombination among their genomes, are observed. The incidence of HCoV-HKU1 infections is the highest in winter. Similar to other human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 infections have been reported globally, with a median (range) incidence of 0.9 (0 – 4.4) %. HCoV-HKU1 is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract infections that are mostly self-limiting. The most common method for diagnosing HCoV-HKU1 infection is RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from respiratory tract samples such as nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA). Both the pol and nucleocapsid genes have been used as the targets for amplification. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated for direct antigen detection in NPA. For antibody detection, Escherichia coli BL21 and baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid of HCoV-HKU1 have been used for IgG and IgM detection in sera of patients and normal individuals, using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newly Identified Respiratory Viruses)

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