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Materials 2016, 9(3), 155; doi:10.3390/ma9030155

Inhibited Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Quaternized Chitosan-Loaded Titania Nanotubes with Various Diameters

1
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China
2
State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Hospital of Fuzhou Affilated to Xiamen University, Fuzhou 350007, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hideyuki Kanematsu
Received: 27 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm and Materials Science)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4143 KB, uploaded 3 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Titania nanotube-based local drug delivery is an attractive strategy for combating implant-associated infection. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the gentamicin-loaded nanotubes could dramatically inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on implant surfaces. Considering the overuse of antibiotics may lead to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we synthesized a new quaternized chitosan derivative (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC) with a 27% degree of substitution (DS; referred to as 27% HACC) that had a strong antibacterial activity and simultaneously good biocompatibility with osteogenic cells. Titania nanotubes with various diameters (80, 120, 160, and 200 nm) and 200 nm length were loaded with 2 mg of HACC using a lyophilization method and vacuum drying. Two standard strain, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 43300) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (American Type Culture Collection 35984), and two clinical isolates, S. aureus 376 and S. epidermidis 389, were selected to investigate the bacterial adhesion at 6 h and biofilm formation at 24, 48, and 72 h on the HACC-loaded nanotubes (NT-H) using the spread plate method, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smooth titanium (Smooth Ti) was also investigated and compared. We found that NT-H could significantly inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on its surface compared with Smooth Ti, and the NT-H with 160 nm and 200 nm diameters had stronger antibacterial activity because of the extended HACC release time of NT-H with larger diameters. Therefore, NT-H can significantly improve the antibacterial ability of orthopedic implants and provide a promising strategy to prevent implant-associated infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: titania nanotubes; quaternised chitosan; bacteria adhesion; biofilm formation; implant-associated infection; antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus titania nanotubes; quaternised chitosan; bacteria adhesion; biofilm formation; implant-associated infection; antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, W.-T.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Tan, H.-L.; Ao, H.-Y.; Duan, Z.-L.; He, G.; Tang, T.-T. Inhibited Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Quaternized Chitosan-Loaded Titania Nanotubes with Various Diameters. Materials 2016, 9, 155.

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