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Materials 2016, 9(11), 909; doi:10.3390/ma9110909

Additive Manufacturing of Biomedical Constructs with Biomimetic Structural Organizations

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada
Department of Knee Joint Surgery, Hong Hui Hospital, Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chee Kai Chua
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering)
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Additive manufacturing (AM), sometimes called three-dimensional (3D) printing, has attracted a lot of research interest and is presenting unprecedented opportunities in biomedical fields, because this technology enables the fabrication of biomedical constructs with great freedom and in high precision. An important strategy in AM of biomedical constructs is to mimic the structural organizations of natural biological organisms. This can be done by directly depositing cells and biomaterials, depositing biomaterial structures before seeding cells, or fabricating molds before casting biomaterials and cells. This review organizes the research advances of AM-based biomimetic biomedical constructs into three major directions: 3D constructs that mimic tubular and branched networks of vasculatures; 3D constructs that contains gradient interfaces between different tissues; and 3D constructs that have different cells positioned to create multicellular systems. Other recent advances are also highlighted, regarding the applications of AM for organs-on-chips, AM-based micro/nanostructures, and functional nanomaterials. Under this theme, multiple aspects of AM including imaging/characterization, material selection, design, and printing techniques are discussed. The outlook at the end of this review points out several possible research directions for the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; three-dimensional printing; biomimetics; biological model; tissue engineering; vasculature; gradient interface; multicellular system additive manufacturing; three-dimensional printing; biomimetics; biological model; tissue engineering; vasculature; gradient interface; multicellular system

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, X.; He, J.; Zhang, W.; Jiang, N.; Li, D. Additive Manufacturing of Biomedical Constructs with Biomimetic Structural Organizations. Materials 2016, 9, 909.

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