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Energies 2016, 9(11), 887; doi:10.3390/en9110887

Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results

1
Department of Astronautics, Electric and Energy Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00184, Italy
2
Terna S.p.A., Rome 00156, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. S. Foot
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7281 KB, uploaded 29 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs) to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO). BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates) was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS); LiFePO4 battery; primary frequency control battery energy storage system (BESS); LiFePO4 battery; primary frequency control
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Gatta, F.M.; Geri, A.; Lamedica, R.; Lauria, S.; Maccioni, M.; Palone, F.; Rebolini, M.; Ruvio, A. Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results. Energies 2016, 9, 887.

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