Next Article in Journal
Scrap Tyre Management Pathways and Their Use as a Fuel—A Review
Next Article in Special Issue
The Demand Side Management Potential to Balance a Highly Renewable European Power System
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Power Tracking Algorithms on Lifetime of Power Electronic Devices Used in Solar Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy Link Optimization in a Wireless Power Transfer Grid under Energy Autonomy Based on the Improved Genetic Algorithm
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2016, 9(11), 887; doi:10.3390/en9110887

Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results

Department of Astronautics, Electric and Energy Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00184, Italy
Terna S.p.A., Rome 00156, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. S. Foot
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7281 KB, uploaded 29 October 2016]   |  


This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs) to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO). BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates) was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS); LiFePO4 battery; primary frequency control battery energy storage system (BESS); LiFePO4 battery; primary frequency control

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gatta, F.M.; Geri, A.; Lamedica, R.; Lauria, S.; Maccioni, M.; Palone, F.; Rebolini, M.; Ruvio, A. Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results. Energies 2016, 9, 887.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top