Energies 2013, 6(9), 4448-4464; doi:10.3390/en6094448
Article

A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide

1 Workgroup Electrochemistry and Electrolytes, Institute of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany 2 Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany 3 Electrochemical Energy Technology (MEET) Battery Research Center, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstr. 46, 48149 Münster, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 29 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
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Abstract: We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability.
Keywords: lithium ion transference number; lithium tetrachloroaluminate; sulfur dioxide; Hittorf’s method; diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY)-NMR

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartl, R.; Fleischmann, M.; Gschwind, R.M.; Winter, M.; Gores, H.J. A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide. Energies 2013, 6, 4448-4464.

AMA Style

Hartl R, Fleischmann M, Gschwind RM, Winter M, Gores HJ. A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide. Energies. 2013; 6(9):4448-4464.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartl, Robert; Fleischmann, Matthias; Gschwind, Ruth M.; Winter, Martin; Gores, Heiner J. 2013. "A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide." Energies 6, no. 9: 4448-4464.

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