Energies 2013, 6(2), 748-765; doi:10.3390/en6020748
Article

Economic Feasibility of V2G Frequency Regulation in Consideration of Battery Wear

1,* email and 2email
Received: 20 November 2012; in revised form: 6 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: An economic feasibility study of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) frequency regulation is performed in consideration of battery wear. Usually, a transaction for frequency regulation is made in terms of power capacity while the battery-wear proceeds in proportion to the absolute amount of energy transferred. In order to relate the two quantities, we first estimate the amount of transferred energy in terms of contracted power capacity, and hence regulation income, by analyzing actual regulation signals and transactions. On the other hand, the amount of transferrable energy during the life cycle of a battery is estimated analyzing some pervasive specifications for electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The expected V2G income is then estimated and compared with battery prices to judge the economic feasibility of V2G regulation. In the latter part of the paper, the assessment result is validated with actual cycle life data of an EV battery cell. As a result, it is concluded that the estimated profit exceeds current market price of EV batteries, indicating that V2G regulation is an economically feasible service.
Keywords: battery wear; battery cycle life; vehicle-to-grid; electric vehicle; frequency regulation; economics
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [512 KB, uploaded 6 February 2013 15:25 CET]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Han, S.; Han, S. Economic Feasibility of V2G Frequency Regulation in Consideration of Battery Wear. Energies 2013, 6, 748-765.

AMA Style

Han S, Han S. Economic Feasibility of V2G Frequency Regulation in Consideration of Battery Wear. Energies. 2013; 6(2):748-765.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Sekyung; Han, Soohee. 2013. "Economic Feasibility of V2G Frequency Regulation in Consideration of Battery Wear." Energies 6, no. 2: 748-765.

Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert