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Energies 2013, 6(11), 5847-5868; doi:10.3390/en6115847

Recent Approaches to Controlling the Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 28 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
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The need for clean, inexpensive and renewable energy has increasingly turned research attention towards polymer photovoltaic cells. However, the performance efficiency of these devices is still low in comparison with silicon-based devices. The recent introduction of new materials and processing techniques has resulted in a remarkable increase in power-conversion efficiency, with a value above 10%. Controlling the interpenetrating network morphology is a key factor in obtaining devices with improved performance. This review focuses on the influence of controlled nanoscale morphology on the overall performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. Strategies such as the use of solvents, solvent annealing, polymer nanowires (NWs), and donor–acceptor (D–A) blend ratios employed to control the active-layer morphologies are all discussed.
Keywords: bulk-heterojunction; solar cell; active layer; photovoltaic bulk-heterojunction; solar cell; active layer; photovoltaic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hammed, W.A.; Yahya, R.; Bola, A.L.; Mahmud, H.N.M.E. Recent Approaches to Controlling the Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells. Energies 2013, 6, 5847-5868.

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