Energies 2011, 4(3), 435-457; doi:10.3390/en4030435
Article

Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

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Received: 7 December 2010; in revised form: 21 January 2011 / Accepted: 2 March 2011 / Published: 4 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Friendly Transportation)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 hours. Most recharges added less than 1.4 kWh, with a mean charge of 0.92 kWh. The average power drawn was under one-half kilowatt. The greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average). The findings contribute to better understanding of how plug-in hybrids might be used, their potential impact, and how potential benefits and requirements vary for different plug-in-vehicle designs. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days.
Keywords: plug-in hybrid; electric drive; charging; energy use; greenhouse gas emissions; household driving behavior; real world data; alternative fuel; battery size; fuel consumption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Williams, B.; Martin, E.; Lipman, T.; Kammen, D. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California. Energies 2011, 4, 435-457.

AMA Style

Williams B, Martin E, Lipman T, Kammen D. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California. Energies. 2011; 4(3):435-457.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Williams, Brett; Martin, Elliot; Lipman, Timothy; Kammen, Daniel. 2011. "Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California." Energies 4, no. 3: 435-457.

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