Next Article in Journal
Procedure for the Design of a Hybrid-Series Vehicle and the Hybridization Degree Choice
Previous Article in Journal
Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Gasification Processes Old and New: A Basic Review of the Major Technologies
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2010, 3(3), 335-449; doi:10.3390/en3030335

Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels

Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry/2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka-Shi Kanagawa-Ken 240-0196, Japan
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 26 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)

Abstract

From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen) or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm/(MJ/m3) or higher. Consequently, principle techniques for combustor design for each IGCC were established by the present analytical and experimental research. Also, this paper contains some findings of the author’s previously published own works and engages in wide-ranging discussion into the future development of gasification technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas turbine; combustor; gasification; low calorific fuel; medium calorific fuel; ammonia; fuel-NOx emissions; thermal-NOx emissions; low-NOx combustion; two-stage combustion; nitrogen direct injection gas turbine; combustor; gasification; low calorific fuel; medium calorific fuel; ammonia; fuel-NOx emissions; thermal-NOx emissions; low-NOx combustion; two-stage combustion; nitrogen direct injection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hasegawa, T. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels. Energies 2010, 3, 335-449.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top