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Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels
Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry/2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka-Shi Kanagawa-Ken 240-0196, Japan
Received: 30 November 2009; in revised form: 26 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Abstract: From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen) or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm/(MJ/m3) or higher. Consequently, principle techniques for combustor design for each IGCC were established by the present analytical and experimental research. Also, this paper contains some findings of the author’s previously published own works and engages in wide-ranging discussion into the future development of gasification technologies.
Keywords: gas turbine; combustor; gasification; low calorific fuel; medium calorific fuel; ammonia; fuel-NOx emissions; thermal-NOx emissions; low-NOx combustion; two-stage combustion; nitrogen direct injection
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Hasegawa, T. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels. Energies 2010, 3, 335-449.
Hasegawa T. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels. Energies. 2010; 3(3):335-449.
Hasegawa, Takeharu. 2010. "Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels." Energies 3, no. 3: 335-449.