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Special Issue "Coal Gasification and Liquefaction"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2009)

Special Issue Information

This Special Issue in Energies, entitled Coal Gasification and Liquefaction, focuses on recent advances in basic research, technology development, and environmental impacts of new coal energy technologies. The issue includes papers that either discuss new engineering and science or review the existing literature. Topics examined include, among others, coal gasification and liquefaction science and technology, emissions from new coal technologies, lifecycle assessments, environmental impacts of new versus old coal technologies, hydrogen or other fuel production from coal, combining new coal technologies with carbon capture and storage.

Keywords

  • coal gasification
  • coal liquefaction
  • environmental impacts
  • hydrogen production
  • emissions
  • lifecycle assessment
  • carbon capture and storage

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels
Energies 2010, 3(3), 335-449; doi:10.3390/en3030335
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 26 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the
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From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen) or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm/(MJ/m3) or higher. Consequently, principle techniques for combustor design for each IGCC were established by the present analytical and experimental research. Also, this paper contains some findings of the author’s previously published own works and engages in wide-ranging discussion into the future development of gasification technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessArticle Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction
Energies 2009, 2(4), 976-1006; doi:10.3390/en20400976
Received: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Direct coal liquefaction has been studied and practiced since the 1930s. It was used in Germany during World War II to produce synthetic fuels when there was no oil allowed into the country. Since then, it has been studied in the United States
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Direct coal liquefaction has been studied and practiced since the 1930s. It was used in Germany during World War II to produce synthetic fuels when there was no oil allowed into the country. Since then, it has been studied in the United States and many different technologies have been investigated. Since the US is rich in coal resources, this is one way to be energy independent. Most of the development activity occurred in the 1980s and numerous technologies were studied, the most notable of these being H-Coal, Exxon Donor Solvent, Solvent Refined Coal, and Two Stage Liquefaction. The key elements of these technologies, particularly the reaction/reactor scheme, are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessArticle The Economics of Gasification: A Market-Based Approach
Energies 2009, 2(3), 662-694; doi:10.3390/en20300662
Received: 21 July 2009 / Revised: 20 August 2009 / Accepted: 21 August 2009 / Published: 25 August 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations
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This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and IGCC power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and missions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessArticle A Study on the Applicability of Kinetic Models for Shenfu Coal Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Temperatures
Energies 2009, 2(3), 545-555; doi:10.3390/en20300545
Received: 5 June 2009 / Revised: 29 June 2009 / Accepted: 10 July 2009 / Published: 20 July 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (260 KB)
Abstract
In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient
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In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient pressure and elevated temperature conditions. Simultaneously, the applicability of the kinetic model for the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars was discussed. The results showed: (i) the shrinking un-reacted core model was not appropriate to describe the gasification reaction process of Shenfu coal chars with CO2 in the whole experimental temperature range; (ii) at the relatively low temperatures, the modified volumetric model was as good as the random pore model to simulate the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars, while at the elevated temperatures, the modified volumetric model was superior to the random pore model for this process; (iii) the integral expression of the modified volumetric model was more favorable than the differential expression of that for fitting the experimental data. Moreover, by simply introducing a function: A = Aexp(ft), it was found that the extensive model of the modified volumetric model could make much better predictions than the modified volumetric model. It was recommended as a convenient empirical model for comprehensive simulation of Shenfu coal char gasification with under conditions close to those of entrained flow gasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessArticle Early Ideas in Underground Coal Gasification and Their Evolution
Energies 2009, 2(2), 456-476; doi:10.3390/en20200456
Received: 14 May 2009 / Revised: 10 June 2009 / Accepted: 12 June 2009 / Published: 24 June 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article follows the development of early UCG (underground coal gasification) ideas. Historical facts are discussed mainly from the technological perspective and early experiments in UCG are analyzed. Our search for the first successful UCG experiment brings to light a new finding, which
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This article follows the development of early UCG (underground coal gasification) ideas. Historical facts are discussed mainly from the technological perspective and early experiments in UCG are analyzed. Our search for the first successful UCG experiment brings to light a new finding, which was commonly overlooked in previous reviews. We also outline the key role that engineer and inventor A. G. Betts played in introducing technologies utilizing unmined coal; his original ideas are visible in the first successful UCG experiments and in modern UCG technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)

Review

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Open AccessReview Gasification Processes Old and New: A Basic Review of the Major Technologies
Energies 2010, 3(2), 216-240; doi:10.3390/en3020216
Received: 8 January 2010 / Accepted: 3 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (1147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major
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This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Direct Coal Liquefaction
Energies 2010, 3(2), 155-170; doi:10.3390/en3020155
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 27 January 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing demand for petroleum, accompanied by the declining petroleum reserves and the concerns over energy security, has intensified the interest in direct coal liquefaction (DCL), particularly in countries such as China which is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. In
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The growing demand for petroleum, accompanied by the declining petroleum reserves and the concerns over energy security, has intensified the interest in direct coal liquefaction (DCL), particularly in countries such as China which is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. In addition to a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of DCL, this paper overviews some recent advances in DCL technology with respect to the influencing factors for DCL reactions (temperature, solvent, pressure, atmospheres, etc.), the effects of coal pre-treatments for DCL (swelling, thermal treatment, hydrothermal treatment, etc.), as well as recent development in multi-staged DCL processes, DCL catalysts and co-liquefaction of coal with biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)

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