Energies 2010, 3(2), 155-170; doi:10.3390/en3020155
Review

Recent Advances in Direct Coal Liquefaction

Received: 16 November 2009; Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 27 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The growing demand for petroleum, accompanied by the declining petroleum reserves and the concerns over energy security, has intensified the interest in direct coal liquefaction (DCL), particularly in countries such as China which is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. In addition to a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of DCL, this paper overviews some recent advances in DCL technology with respect to the influencing factors for DCL reactions (temperature, solvent, pressure, atmospheres, etc.), the effects of coal pre-treatments for DCL (swelling, thermal treatment, hydrothermal treatment, etc.), as well as recent development in multi-staged DCL processes, DCL catalysts and co-liquefaction of coal with biomass.
Keywords: direct coal liquefaction (DCL); processes; influencing factors; coal pre-treatment; catalysts; co-liquefaction; biomass
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shui, H.; Cai, Z.; Xu, C.(. Recent Advances in Direct Coal Liquefaction. Energies 2010, 3, 155-170.

AMA Style

Shui H, Cai Z, Xu C(. Recent Advances in Direct Coal Liquefaction. Energies. 2010; 3(2):155-170.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shui, Hengfu; Cai, Zhenyi; Xu, Chunbao (Charles). 2010. "Recent Advances in Direct Coal Liquefaction." Energies 3, no. 2: 155-170.

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