Energies 2009, 2(4), 976-1006; doi:10.3390/en20400976

Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction

Received: 14 October 2009; Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Gasification and Liquefaction)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Direct coal liquefaction has been studied and practiced since the 1930s. It was used in Germany during World War II to produce synthetic fuels when there was no oil allowed into the country. Since then, it has been studied in the United States and many different technologies have been investigated. Since the US is rich in coal resources, this is one way to be energy independent. Most of the development activity occurred in the 1980s and numerous technologies were studied, the most notable of these being H-Coal, Exxon Donor Solvent, Solvent Refined Coal, and Two Stage Liquefaction. The key elements of these technologies, particularly the reaction/reactor scheme, are discussed in this review.
Keywords: coal; liquefaction; reactors; kinetics; catalysis; deactivation; reaction engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Robinson, K.K. Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction. Energies 2009, 2, 976-1006.

AMA Style

Robinson KK. Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction. Energies. 2009; 2(4):976-1006.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Robinson, Ken K. 2009. "Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction." Energies 2, no. 4: 976-1006.

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