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Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction
Mega-Carbon Company, 5N553 Jens Jensen Lane, St. Charles, IL 60175, USA
Received: 14 October 2009; Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Abstract: Direct coal liquefaction has been studied and practiced since the 1930s. It was used in Germany during World War II to produce synthetic fuels when there was no oil allowed into the country. Since then, it has been studied in the United States and many different technologies have been investigated. Since the US is rich in coal resources, this is one way to be energy independent. Most of the development activity occurred in the 1980s and numerous technologies were studied, the most notable of these being H-Coal, Exxon Donor Solvent, Solvent Refined Coal, and Two Stage Liquefaction. The key elements of these technologies, particularly the reaction/reactor scheme, are discussed in this review.
Keywords: coal; liquefaction; reactors; kinetics; catalysis; deactivation; reaction engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style
Robinson, K.K. Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction. Energies 2009, 2, 976-1006.
Robinson KK. Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction. Energies. 2009; 2(4):976-1006.
Robinson, Ken K. 2009. "Reaction Engineering of Direct Coal Liquefaction." Energies 2, no. 4: 976-1006.