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Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, PMB X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2012; in revised form: 16 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
Abstract: This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 Listeria ivanovii and 33 Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological tests and further confirmed using API 20E and API Listeria kits. The disc diffusion technique was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobials; minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics was determined by the broth dilution method. All the strains of E. cloacae (100%) and 96% of L. ivanovii isolates were resistant to at least four or more of the antibiotics; nineteen antibiotypes were obtained based on the antibiotics used in the study. Antibiotype A5: AR PGR VAR ER APR was predominant in both L. ivanovii (23.5%) and E. cloacae (57.5%) isolates. Marked susceptibility of Listeria ivanovii was observed against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100%) each while E. cloacae registered 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Various percentages of susceptibility was reported to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (91%) each, nalidixic acid (97%) and streptomycin (94%). The MIC90 ranged from 0.004–7.5 µg/mL with E. cloacae being the most susceptible organism. The study demonstrated the presence of multi-resistant strains of bacteria in ready-to-eat-foods and speculates that these foods could serve as important vehicles transmitting multi-resistant bacteria to humans.
Keywords: foodborne pathogens; Listeria ivanovii; Enterobacter cloacae; antibiotic resistance; minimum inhibitory concentration; South Africa
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MDPI and ACS Style
Nyenje, M.E.; Tanih, N.F.; Green, E.; Ndip, R.N. Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3101-3114.
Nyenje ME, Tanih NF, Green E, Ndip RN. Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(9):3101-3114.
Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N. 2012. "Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 9: 3101-3114.