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HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS A-04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), Saint Paul, MN 55164, USA
Department of Medicine—Global Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
HealthPartners Regions Hospital, Saint Paul, MN 55104, USA
Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2012; in revised form: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Abstract: In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97%) were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–76) years). Charts were abstracted for 157 (124 (79%) with ≥1 year of follow-up). At initial presentation, two of 74 (3%) women were pregnant; 27% became pregnant during follow-up. HIV clinical stage varied (59%, asymptomatic; 11%, mild symptoms; 10%, advanced symptoms; 3%, severe symptoms; 17%, unknown); coinfections were common (51 tuberculosis, 13 hepatitis B, 13 parasites, four syphilis). Prior to arrival 4% had received antiretrovirals. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed among 13%; 2% died from AIDS-related causes. Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: HIV; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; refugees; emigration and immigration; epidemiology
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lowther, S.A.; Johnson, G.; Hendel-Paterson, B.; Nelson, K.; Mamo, B.; Krohn, K.; Pessoa-Brandão, L.; O'Fallon, A.; Stauffer, W. HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4197-4209.
Lowther SA, Johnson G, Hendel-Paterson B, Nelson K, Mamo B, Krohn K, Pessoa-Brandão L, O'Fallon A, Stauffer W. HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(11):4197-4209.
Lowther, Sara A.; Johnson, Glenise; Hendel-Paterson, Brett; Nelson, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Krohn, Kristina; Pessoa-Brandão, Luisa; O'Fallon, Ann; Stauffer, William. 2012. "HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 11: 4197-4209.