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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(11), 4197-4209; doi:10.3390/ijerph9114197
Article

HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007

1,2,* , 2
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1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS A-04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA 2 Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), Saint Paul, MN 55164, USA 3 Department of Medicine—Global Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA 4 HealthPartners Regions Hospital, Saint Paul, MN 55104, USA 5 Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migrant Health 2012)
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Abstract

In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97%) were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–76) years). Charts were abstracted for 157 (124 (79%) with ≥1 year of follow-up). At initial presentation, two of 74 (3%) women were pregnant; 27% became pregnant during follow-up. HIV clinical stage varied (59%, asymptomatic; 11%, mild symptoms; 10%, advanced symptoms; 3%, severe symptoms; 17%, unknown); coinfections were common (51 tuberculosis, 13 hepatitis B, 13 parasites, four syphilis). Prior to arrival 4% had received antiretrovirals. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed among 13%; 2% died from AIDS-related causes. Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: HIV; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; refugees; emigration and immigration; epidemiology HIV; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; refugees; emigration and immigration; epidemiology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lowther, S.A.; Johnson, G.; Hendel-Paterson, B.; Nelson, K.; Mamo, B.; Krohn, K.; Pessoa-Brandão, L.; O'Fallon, A.; Stauffer, W. HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4197-4209.

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