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Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among High-Risk, Urban Youth in the U.S.: Shared and Unique Risk and Protective Factors
Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, 50 Decatur Street Southeast, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester, 400 Fort Hill Avenue, Canandaigua, Rochester, NY 14424, USA
Department of Psychology, Kent State University, 800 East Summit Street, Kent, OH 44242, USA
Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road Northeast, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Department of Psychology, John Carroll University, 20700 North Park Boulevard, University Height, OH 44118, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2011; in revised form: 13 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 11 January 2012
Abstract: The extent to which self-harm and suicidal behavior overlap in community samples of vulnerable youth is not well known. Secondary analyses were conducted of the “linkages study” (N = 4,131), a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11/12 in a high-risk community in the U.S. in 2004. Analyses were conducted to determine the risk and protective factors (i.e., academic grades, binge drinking, illicit drug use, weapon carrying, child maltreatment, social support, depression, impulsivity, self-efficacy, parental support, and parental monitoring) associated with both self-harm and suicide attempt. Findings show that 7.5% of participants reported both self-harm and suicide attempt, 2.2% of participants reported suicide attempt only, and 12.4% of participants reported self-harm only. Shared risk factors for co-occurring self-harm and suicide attempt include depression, binge drinking, weapon carrying, child maltreatment, and impulsivity. There were also important differences by sex, grade level, and race/ethnicity that should be considered for future research. The findings show that there is significant overlap in the modifiable risk factors associated with self-harm and suicide attempt that can be targeted for future research and prevention strategies.
Keywords: self-harm; suicide attempt; youth; adolescents; U.S.; high-risk; school; cross-sectional
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Swahn, M.H.; Ali, B.; Bossarte, R.M.; Van Dulmen, M.; Crosby, A.; Jones, A.C.; Schinka, K.C. Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among High-Risk, Urban Youth in the U.S.: Shared and Unique Risk and Protective Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 178-191.
Swahn MH, Ali B, Bossarte RM, Van Dulmen M, Crosby A, Jones AC, Schinka KC. Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among High-Risk, Urban Youth in the U.S.: Shared and Unique Risk and Protective Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(1):178-191.
Swahn, Monica H.; Ali, Bina; Bossarte, Robert M.; Van Dulmen, Manfred; Crosby, Alex; Jones, Angela C.; Schinka, Katherine C. 2012. "Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among High-Risk, Urban Youth in the U.S.: Shared and Unique Risk and Protective Factors." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 1: 178-191.