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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(1), 171-177; doi:10.3390/ijerph9010171
Article

Zinc in Well Water and Infant Mortality in Bangladesh: A Report from Gonoshasthaya Kendra

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 5 December 2011; in revised form: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 6 January 2012 / Published: 10 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health)
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Abstract: Zinc supplementation reduces the duration, severity and recurrence of diarrhoea in young children. This study examines whether zinc, found naturally in drinking water, reduced infant deaths from diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh. Information was compiled for births over two calendar years with follow-up for deaths within one year of birth. The study included 29,744 live births and 934 deaths in some 600 villages under the care of Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK), grouped into 15 health centre regions within 12 upazillas. Individual matching of death to birth data was not possible, but information on exposures through well water and on potential confounders was available for each upazilla. Average concentration of zinc in well water, reported by the British Geological Survey, was grouped into high (>0.07 mg/L), moderate (0.020–0.070 mg/L) and low (< 0.020 mg/L) concentrations. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for zinc by age and cause of death. Zinc concentration was unrelated to all-cause mortality but a decrease in deaths from diarrhoea (N = 50) was seen in areas with high zinc (OR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.13–0.69). No relation to diarrhoeal deaths was found with other well contaminants (arsenic, manganese) having accounted for zinc. Upazillas with a high proportion of women without education had higher rates of death from diarrhea, but the decrease in risk with high zinc remained (OR adjusted = 0.41; 95% CI 0.20–0.84). It is concluded that exposure to zinc through drinking water may reduce risk of diarrhoeal deaths.
Keywords: zinc; drinking water; infant mortality; diarrhoea; Bangladesh zinc; drinking water; infant mortality; diarrhoea; Bangladesh
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cherry, N.; McDonald, C.; Chowdhury, Z. Zinc in Well Water and Infant Mortality in Bangladesh: A Report from Gonoshasthaya Kendra. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 171-177.

AMA Style

Cherry N, McDonald C, Chowdhury Z. Zinc in Well Water and Infant Mortality in Bangladesh: A Report from Gonoshasthaya Kendra. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(1):171-177.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cherry, Nicola; McDonald, Corbett; Chowdhury, Zafrullah. 2012. "Zinc in Well Water and Infant Mortality in Bangladesh: A Report from Gonoshasthaya Kendra." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 1: 171-177.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert