Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(9), 3728-3746; doi:10.3390/ijerph8093728
Review

Does α-Amino-β-methylaminopropionic Acid (BMAA) Play a Role in Neurodegeneration?

email, email, email and * email
Received: 6 June 2011; in revised form: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The association of α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid (BMAA) with elevated incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson’s disease complex (ALS/PDC) was first identified on the island of Guam. BMAA has been shown to be produced across the cyanobacterial order and its detection has been reported in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial environments worldwide, suggesting that it is ubiquitous. Various in vivo studies on rats, mice, chicks and monkeys have shown that it can cause neurodegenerative symptoms such as ataxia and convulsions. Zebrafish research has also shown disruption to neural development after BMAA exposure. In vitro studies on mice, rats and leeches have shown that BMAA acts predominantly on motor neurons. Observed increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ influx, coupled with disruption to mitochondrial activity and general neuronal death, indicate that the main mode of activity is via excitotoxic mechanisms. The current review pertaining to the neurotoxicity of BMAA clearly demonstrates its ability to adversely affect neural tissues, and implicates it as a potentially significant compound in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disease. When considering the potential adverse health effects upon exposure to this compound, further research to better understand the modes of toxicity of BMAA and the environmental exposure limits is essential.
Keywords: BMAA; neuron; glia; neural; neurodegeneration; excitotoxicity; ALS/PDC; cycad; toxicology; cyanobacteria; Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1331 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 02:57 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Chiu, A.S.; Gehringer, M.M.; Welch, J.H.; Neilan, B.A. Does α-Amino-β-methylaminopropionic Acid (BMAA) Play a Role in Neurodegeneration? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3728-3746.

AMA Style

Chiu AS, Gehringer MM, Welch JH, Neilan BA. Does α-Amino-β-methylaminopropionic Acid (BMAA) Play a Role in Neurodegeneration? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(9):3728-3746.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiu, Alexander S.; Gehringer, Michelle M.; Welch, Jeffrey H.; Neilan, Brett A. 2011. "Does α-Amino-β-methylaminopropionic Acid (BMAA) Play a Role in Neurodegeneration?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 9: 3728-3746.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert