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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(10), 3889-3921; doi:10.3390/ijerph8103889
Review

Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure?

1
 and 2,*
Received: 9 August 2011; in revised form: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 29 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract: Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex, a disappearing neurodegenerative disease linked to use of the neurotoxic cycad plant for food and/or medicine, is intensively studied because the neuropathology (tauopathy) is similar to that of Alzheimer’s disease. Cycads contain neurotoxic and genotoxic principles, notably cycasin and methylazoxymethanol, the latter sharing chemical relations with nitrosamines, which are derived from nitrates and nitrites in preserved meats and fertilizers, and also used in the rubber and leather industries. This review includes new data that influence understanding of the neurobiological actions of cycad and related genotoxins and the putative mechanisms by which they might trigger neurodegenerative disease.
Keywords: Guam; cycad; methylazoxymethanol (MAM); b-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA); DNA damage; tauopathy; neurodegenerative disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); parkinsonism-dementia; nitrosamines; formaldehyde Guam; cycad; methylazoxymethanol (MAM); b-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA); DNA damage; tauopathy; neurodegenerative disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); parkinsonism-dementia; nitrosamines; formaldehyde
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kisby, G.E.; Spencer, P.S. Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3889-3921.

AMA Style

Kisby GE, Spencer PS. Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(10):3889-3921.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kisby, Glen E.; Spencer, Peter S. 2011. "Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 10: 3889-3921.


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