Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(10), 3889-3921; doi:10.3390/ijerph8103889
Review

Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure?

1 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific Northwest, Lebanon, OR 97355, USA 2 Global Health Center, Center for Research on Occupational & Environmental Toxicology, and School of Medicine Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2011; in revised form: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 29 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [4986 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 30 September 2011 14:24 CEST]
The original version is still available [5001 KB, uploaded 29 September 2011 15:13 CEST]
Abstract: Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex, a disappearing neurodegenerative disease linked to use of the neurotoxic cycad plant for food and/or medicine, is intensively studied because the neuropathology (tauopathy) is similar to that of Alzheimer’s disease. Cycads contain neurotoxic and genotoxic principles, notably cycasin and methylazoxymethanol, the latter sharing chemical relations with nitrosamines, which are derived from nitrates and nitrites in preserved meats and fertilizers, and also used in the rubber and leather industries. This review includes new data that influence understanding of the neurobiological actions of cycad and related genotoxins and the putative mechanisms by which they might trigger neurodegenerative disease.
Keywords: Guam; cycad; methylazoxymethanol (MAM); b-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA); DNA damage; tauopathy; neurodegenerative disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); parkinsonism-dementia; nitrosamines; formaldehyde

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kisby, G.E.; Spencer, P.S. Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3889-3921.

AMA Style

Kisby GE, Spencer PS. Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(10):3889-3921.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kisby, Glen E.; Spencer, Peter S. 2011. "Is Neurodegenerative Disease a Long-Latency Response to Early-Life Genotoxin Exposure?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 10: 3889-3921.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert