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Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis
Section of Environmental Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Copenhagen DK-1014, Denmark
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, 49 Strandboulevarden, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
Department of Environmental Sciences, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde DK-4000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2011; in revised form: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Abstract: Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999–2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tappmax, an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (−7% 95% CI −13%; −1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.
Keywords: temperature; epidemiology; respiratory; cardiovascular; cerebrovascular; mortality; case-crossover
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Wichmann, J.; Andersen, Z.J.; Ketzel, M.; Ellermann, T.; Loft, S. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3712-3727.
Wichmann J, Andersen ZJ, Ketzel M, Ellermann T, Loft S. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(9):3712-3727.
Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen. 2011. "Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 9: 3712-3727.