Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(9), 3712-3727; doi:10.3390/ijerph8093712
Article

Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis

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Received: 20 July 2011; in revised form: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
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Abstract: Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999–2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tappmax, an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (−7% 95% CI −13%; −1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.
Keywords: temperature; epidemiology; respiratory; cardiovascular; cerebrovascular; mortality; case-crossover
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wichmann, J.; Andersen, Z.J.; Ketzel, M.; Ellermann, T.; Loft, S. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3712-3727.

AMA Style

Wichmann J, Andersen ZJ, Ketzel M, Ellermann T, Loft S. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(9):3712-3727.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen. 2011. "Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 9: 3712-3727.


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