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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(9), 3712-3727; doi:10.3390/ijerph8093712
Article

Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis

1,* , 2
, 3
, 3
 and 1
1 Section of Environmental Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Copenhagen DK-1014, Denmark 2 Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, 49 Strandboulevarden, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark 3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde DK-4000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2011 / Revised: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
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Abstract

Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999–2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tappmax, an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (−7% 95% CI −13%; −1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.
Keywords: temperature; epidemiology; respiratory; cardiovascular; cerebrovascular; mortality; case-crossover temperature; epidemiology; respiratory; cardiovascular; cerebrovascular; mortality; case-crossover
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wichmann, J.; Andersen, Z.J.; Ketzel, M.; Ellermann, T.; Loft, S. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3712-3727.

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