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Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers
The Dow Chemical Company, Epidemiology, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674, USA
Dow Benelux BV, Gaspeldoorn 24, Maastricht, Limburg, 6226WR, The Netherlands
The Dow Chemical Company, Industrial Hygiene, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674, USA
The Dow Chemical Company, Occupational Health, 607 Building, Midland, MI 48674, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011; in revised form: 27 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Abstract: Despite showing no evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in some human epidemiology studies, albeit inconsistently. We matched an existing cohort of 2,4-D manufacturing employees with cancer registries in three US states resulting in 244 cancers compared to 276 expected cases. The Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) for the 14 NHL cases was 1.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.74–2.29). Risk estimates were higher in the upper cumulative exposure and duration subgroups, yet not statistically significant. There were no clear patterns of NHL risk with period of hire and histology subtypes. Statistically significant results were observed for prostate cancer (SIR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57–0.94), and “other respiratory” cancers (SIR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.22–8.84; 4 of 5 cases were mesotheliomas). Overall, we observed fewer cancer cases than expected, and a non statistically significant increase in the number of NHL cases.
Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; cancer; occupation
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Burns, C.; Bodner, K.; Swaen, G.; Collins, J.; Beard, K.; Lee, M. Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3579-3590.
Burns C, Bodner K, Swaen G, Collins J, Beard K, Lee M. Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(9):3579-3590.
Burns, Carol; Bodner, Kenneth; Swaen, Gerard; Collins, James; Beard, Kathy; Lee, Marcia. 2011. "Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 9: 3579-3590.