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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1727-1754; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051727

Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children’s Observational Exposure Studies

1
Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
2
National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
3
Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2011 / Revised: 12 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 May 2011 / Published: 24 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
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Abstract

Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; urinary biomarkers; human exposure; residue intake; exposure trends; exposure variability pesticides; urinary biomarkers; human exposure; residue intake; exposure trends; exposure variability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Egeghy, P.P.; Cohen Hubal, E.A.; Tulve, N.S.; Melnyk, L.J.; Morgan, M.K.; Fortmann, R.C.; Sheldon, L.S. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children’s Observational Exposure Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1727-1754.

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