Abstract: Children are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides originating from both outdoor and indoor sources. Several studies were conducted or funded by the EPA over the past decade to investigate children’s exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and the factors that impact their exposures. Urinary metabolite concentration measurements from these studies are consolidated here to identify trends, spatial and temporal patterns, and areas where further research is required. Namely, concentrations of the metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol or TCPy), diazinon (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol or IMP), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid or 3-PBA) are presented. Information on the kinetic parameters describing absorption and elimination in humans is also presented to aid in interpretation. Metabolite concentrations varied more dramatically across studies for 3-PBA and IMP than for TCPy, with TCPy concentrations about an order of magnitude higher than the 3-PBA concentrations. Temporal variability was high for all metabolites with urinary 3-PBA concentrations slightly more consistent over time than the TCPy concentrations. Urinary biomarker levels provided only limited evidence of applications. The observed relationships between urinary metabolite levels and estimates of pesticide intake may be affected by differences in the contribution of each exposure route to total intake, which may vary with exposure intensity and across individuals.
Keywords: pesticides; urinary biomarkers; human exposure; residue intake; exposure trends; exposure variability
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Egeghy, P.P.; Cohen Hubal, E.A.; Tulve, N.S.; Melnyk, L.J.; Morgan, M.K.; Fortmann, R.C.; Sheldon, L.S. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children’s Observational Exposure Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1727-1754.
Egeghy PP, Cohen Hubal EA, Tulve NS, Melnyk LJ, Morgan MK, Fortmann RC, Sheldon LS. Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children’s Observational Exposure Studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(5):1727-1754.
Egeghy, Peter P.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Melnyk, Lisa J.; Morgan, Marsha K.; Fortmann, Roy C.; Sheldon, Linda S. 2011. "Review of Pesticide Urinary Biomarker Measurements from Selected US EPA Children’s Observational Exposure Studies." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 5: 1727-1754.