Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 2200-2211; doi:10.3390/ijerph8062200
Review

Nanoparticles and Colloids as Contributing Factors in Neurodegenerative Disease

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Received: 14 April 2011; in revised form: 13 May 2011 / Accepted: 16 May 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract: This review explores the processes underlying the deleterious effects of the presence of insoluble or colloidal depositions within the central nervous system. These materials are chemically unreactive and can have a prolonged residence in the brain. They can be composed of mineral or proteinaceous materials of intrinsic or exogenous origin. Such nanoparticulates and colloids are associated with a range of slow-progressing neurodegenerative states. The potential common basis of toxicity of these materials is discussed. A shared feature of these disorders involves the appearance of deleterious inflammatory changes in the CNS. This may be due to extended and ineffective immune responses. Another aspect is the presence of excess levels of reactive oxygen species within the brain. In addition with their induction by inflammatory events, these may be further heightened by the presence of redox active transition metals to the large surface area afforded by nanoparticles and amphipathic micelles.
Keywords: nanoparticles; colloids; neuroinflammation; neurodegenerative disease; immune system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bondy, S.C. Nanoparticles and Colloids as Contributing Factors in Neurodegenerative Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2200-2211.

AMA Style

Bondy SC. Nanoparticles and Colloids as Contributing Factors in Neurodegenerative Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(6):2200-2211.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bondy, Stephen C. 2011. "Nanoparticles and Colloids as Contributing Factors in Neurodegenerative Disease." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 6: 2200-2211.


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