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Biomarkers of Immunotoxicity for Environmental and Public Health Research
Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way MS #59, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 733 University Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2011; in revised form: 26 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 April 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
Abstract: The immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases including asthma, autoimmunity and cancer. Application of biomarkers of immunotoxicity in epidemiology studies and human clinical trials can improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the associations between environmental exposures and development of these immune-mediated diseases. Immunological biomarkers currently used in environmental health studies include detection of key components of innate and adaptive immunity (e.g., complement, immunoglobulin and cell subsets) as well as functional responses and activation of key immune cells. The use of high-throughput assays, including flow cytometry, Luminex, and Multi-spot cytokine detection methods can further provide quantitative analysis of immune effects. Due to the complexity and redundancy of the immune response, an integrated assessment of several components of the immune responses is needed. The rapidly expanding field of immunoinformatics will also aid in the synthesis of the vast amount of data being generated. This review discusses and provides examples of how the identification and development of immunological biomarkers for use in studies of environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders can be achieved.
Keywords: asthma; COPD; biomarker validation; immunoinformatics; Luminex; immunome; immunotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Duramad, P.; Holland, N.T. Biomarkers of Immunotoxicity for Environmental and Public Health Research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1388-1401.
Duramad P, Holland NT. Biomarkers of Immunotoxicity for Environmental and Public Health Research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(5):1388-1401.
Duramad, Paurene; Holland, Nina T. 2011. "Biomarkers of Immunotoxicity for Environmental and Public Health Research." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 5: 1388-1401.