Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2010; in revised form: 30 December 2010 / Accepted: 31 December 2010 / Published: 6 January 2011
Abstract: Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p < 0.001). Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p < 0.001). The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases.
Keywords: hygiene; trial; infection
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Burton, M.; Cobb, E.; Donachie, P.; Judah, G.; Curtis, V.; Schmidt, W.-P. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 97-104.
Burton M, Cobb E, Donachie P, Judah G, Curtis V, Schmidt W-P. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(1):97-104.
Burton, Maxine; Cobb, Emma; Donachie, Peter; Judah, Gaby; Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter. 2011. "The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 1: 97-104.