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Filamentous Fungi in Drinking Water, Particularly in Relation to Biofilm Formation
IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Department of Antibiotics, Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Morais Rego, 1235, 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2010; in revised form: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 9 February 2011
Abstract: The presence of filamentous fungi in drinking water has become an area worthy of investigation with various studies now being published. The problems associated with fungi include blockage of water pipes, organoleptic deterioration, pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins. Fungal biofilm formation is a less developed field of study. This paper updates the topic and introduces novel methods on fungal biofilm analysis, particularly from work based in Brazil. Further recommendations for standard methodology are provided.
Keywords: fungal biofilms; drinking water; contaminants; filamentous fungi; water distribution system
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MDPI and ACS Style
Siqueira, V.M.; Oliveira, H.M.B.; Santos, C.; Paterson, R.R.M.; Gusmão, N.B.; Lima, N. Filamentous Fungi in Drinking Water, Particularly in Relation to Biofilm Formation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 456-469.
Siqueira VM, Oliveira HMB, Santos C, Paterson RRM, Gusmão NB, Lima N. Filamentous Fungi in Drinking Water, Particularly in Relation to Biofilm Formation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(2):456-469.
Siqueira, Virgínia M.; Oliveira, Helena M.B.; Santos, Cledir; Paterson, R. Russell M.; Gusmão, Norma B.; Lima, Nelson. 2011. "Filamentous Fungi in Drinking Water, Particularly in Relation to Biofilm Formation." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 2: 456-469.