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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(1), 161-184; doi:10.3390/ijerph8010161
Review

Lysyl Oxidase, A Critical Intra- and Extra-Cellular Target in the Lung for Cigarette Smoke Pathogenesis

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Received: 23 November 2010; in revised form: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
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Abstract: Cigarette smoke (CS), a complex chemical mixture, contains more than 4,800 different compounds, including oxidants, heavy metals, and carcinogens, that individually or in combination initiate or promote pathogenesis in the lung accounting for 82% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths and 87% of lung cancer deaths. Lysyl oxidase (LO), a Cu-dependent enzyme, oxidizes peptidyl lysine residues in collagen, elastin and histone H1, essential for stabilization of the extracellular matrix and cell nucleus. Considerable evidences have shown that LO is a tumor suppressor as exemplified by inhibiting transforming activity of ras, a proto oncogene. CS condensate (CSC), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and cadmium (Cd), major components of CS, down-regulate LO expression at such multiple levels as mRNA, protein and catalytic activity in lung cells in vitro and in vivo indicating LO as a critical intra- and extracellular target for CS pathogenesis in the lung. In view of multiple biological functions and regulation characteristics of the LO gene, molecular mechanisms for CS damage to lung LO and its role in emphysema and cancer pathogenesis are discussed in this review.
Keywords: cigarette smoke (CS); CS condensate (CSC); 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); cadmium (Cd); lysyl oxidase (LO); emphysema; carcinogenesis cigarette smoke (CS); CS condensate (CSC); 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); cadmium (Cd); lysyl oxidase (LO); emphysema; carcinogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Zhou, J.; Chen, L.; Luo, Z.; Zhao, Y. Lysyl Oxidase, A Critical Intra- and Extra-Cellular Target in the Lung for Cigarette Smoke Pathogenesis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 161-184.

AMA Style

Li W, Zhou J, Chen L, Luo Z, Zhao Y. Lysyl Oxidase, A Critical Intra- and Extra-Cellular Target in the Lung for Cigarette Smoke Pathogenesis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(1):161-184.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Wande; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Lijun; Luo, Zhijun; Zhao, Yinzhi. 2011. "Lysyl Oxidase, A Critical Intra- and Extra-Cellular Target in the Lung for Cigarette Smoke Pathogenesis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 1: 161-184.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert