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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3298-3312; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083298
Article

Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch)

1,2,* , 2
, 2
, 2
, 2
 and 2
1 Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2 National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Canal Ring Road, PO- Dilkusha Lucknow 226 002 (UP), India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.
Keywords: atrazine; toxicity; C. punctatus; oxidative stress; environmental pollution; LC10-90 atrazine; toxicity; C. punctatus; oxidative stress; environmental pollution; LC10-90
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nwani, C.D.; Lakra, W.S.; Nagpure, N.S.; Kumar, R.; Kushwaha, B.; Srivastava, S.K. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 3298-3312.

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